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19. Publishers usually require Faculty to check a box indicating transfer of copyright before a paper is published. Will Faculty be in compliance with the OSU Open Access policy if they checked the box?
1. What is “Open Access?”
Open Access refers to unrestricted online access to any form of creative work or scholarship. Work that is available Open Access is freely available online to anyone in the world with an internet connection and a web browser. The OSU Open Access policy includes only scholarly articles (see below).
Open Access increases the visibility and impact of faculty scholarship. Studies show that articles available through Open Access are cited more often than those available only through subscription. Increased visibility and use of Open Access articles increases impact, as demonstrated by increased citations. See also: a summary of open access citation advantage studies.
As a land-, sea-, space-, and sun grant institution, the people who will ultimately use some of our research aren’t other scientists. They are practitioners and decision-makers, or in some cases school teachers and students. Impacts of especially practitioner-based scholarship may be better measured by the number of times these works are downloaded than by citation studies. ScholarsArchive@OSU provides download statistics for every item and collection of items in the repository. Some Faculty articles deposited to ScholarsArchive@OSU have been downloaded more than 1000 times.
Articles available open access in ScholarsArchive@OSU are preserved, cataloged, indexed and collocated, bringing together all of an individual faculty's scholarship, an academic unit's scholarship, and the institution's scholarship. Oregon State University will provide persistent storage of and access to a digital copy of your work, ensuring that it will continue to be available to readers. Each article has a persistent URL and metadata pertaining to the article DOI. The web page at Oregon State University that this URL points to includes a link and citation information for the original article on the publisher's web site as well as an archival copy in the OSU repository that is accessible to those who do not have subscription access to the published version.
Federal agency Open Access mandates are becoming more common, and pending federal legislation would vastly increase the numbers of funded research works for which open access will be a requirement. A license given to OSU will allow the university to make the process of fulfilling these mandates much easier for individual authors.
(Partly from the Benefits to Open Access at Duke University)
A key element of the land grant mission is public access. Taxpayers fund universities and faculty to do research. Open Access allows the fruits of that research to be read and used by taxpayers, decision-makers, teachers and students. OSU’s Extension and Experiment Station recognizes the importance of making OSU research available to the public by making every one of their publications available Open Access. Open Access also makes knowledge available to people in the developing world, not just to those colleagues and students who belong to institutions that can afford subscriptions to the journal literature.
There are two ways to make your scholarship available Open Access:
The OSU Open Access policy is a green open access policy and allows faculty to publish in the journals of their choice.
The Harvard University Office for Scholarly Communication maintains a guide to good practices for university OA policies. Oregon State University's proposed Open Access policy is very similar to those passed at Harvard, Duke, MIT, Kansas and Rhode Island whereby the institution is granted certain non-exclusive rights to future research articles published by faculty. Articles are required to be deposited to the ScholarsArchive@OSU open access repository for open dissemination. The policy includes a waiver option that guarantees that faculty are free to decide against OA for any publication. The policy merely shifts the default from non-deposit and non-OA to deposit and OA for OSU faculty articles.
Open Source software, like free software, is a kind of software, namely, software whose source code is freely available for inspection or modification. Open Access is a kind of access or availability.
(From the Budapest Open Access Initiative: Frequently Asked Questions)
An OSU Open Access Policy represents a powerful, collective statement about the Faculty commitment to promote the access to and use of our scholarship by the wider public. The primary aim of this policy is to make our scholarship more widely discoverable and available. We are asserting Faculty control over the publication of scholarly research, and recognize our responsibility for making that process sustainable and true to the intentions of scholars.
(Partly from the Open Access Policy FAQ at UC San Francisco)
An Open Access policy was unanimously approved by the Oregon State University Faculty Senate at the June 13, 2013 meeting.
The policy applies to scholarly articles completed after the policy was adopted on June 13, 2013.
Only scholarly articles. Using terms from the Budapest Open Access Initiative, faculty's scholarly articles are articles that describe the fruits of their research and that they give to the world for the sake of inquiry and knowledge without expectation of payment. Such articles are typically presented in peer-reviewed scholarly journals and conference proceedings. This policy does not include or address: books, popular articles, commissioned lecture notes, fiction, poetry, encyclopedia entries, ephemeral writings, or other copyrighted works generated as part of other publishing or distribution mechanisms.
(Partly from the Open Access Policies FAQ at Harvard University's Office for Scholarly Communication)
Experience has shown that mere exhortations have little effect on author's behavior. Before Congress enacted the NIH Public Access Policy, participation was optional. During that period, there was only a 4% level of compliance. Opt-out systems such as the OSU policy achieve much higher degrees of participation than opt-in systems, even while remaining non-coercive. By making a blanket policy, individual Faculty benefit from their membership in the policy-making group. The University can work with publishers and other universities on behalf of the Faculty to simplify procedures and broaden access.
(Partly from the Open Access Policy FAQ at UC San Francisco)
In order to assist the University in distributing scholarly articles, each Faculty member will deposit a digital copy of the accepted (post-peer review, pre-typeset) manuscript of the article to the ScholarsArchive@OSU institutional repository. Select the 'Share Your Work' button and choose Articles.
Yes. ScholarsArchive@OSU is Oregon State University's Open Access institutional repository. ScholarsArchive@OSU is regularly ranked among the top 10 single institution digital repositories in the country based on size, number of items, and discoverability of content in Google and Google Scholar. As of March 2018, the repository contains over 8,000 faculty articles, every thesis and dissertation ever produced at the university (26,000), and thousands of presentations, technical reports, books, data sets and other forms of OSU scholarship.
The policy requires that the author submit the "author's accepted manuscript" version of the article. This means the manuscript copy post-peer review but before a publisher typesets and finalizes it, also referred to as a post-print. If the publisher allows deposit of the final published version, you may deposit that version.
Thanks to the OSU Open Access Policy passed by the Faculty Senate, faculty at OSU may self-archive the Post-Print version of their articles immediately to ScholarsArchive@OSU without embargoes.
None. The policy is completely agnostic with respect to where a Faculty member chooses to publish: it requires that Faculty grant OSU a non-exclusive license to make the article available in the ScholarsArchive@OSU institutional repository. A small number of publishers require that authors at institutions with open access policies receive a waiver from the policy. The following publishers have informed the library that they require a waiver: ARRS, Imprint Academic, Institute of Physics, JTE Multimedia. AAAS and Nature Publishing Group also routinely require waivers from university Open Access policies.
In these cases, the author may opt out of the application of the OSU license by getting a waiver. See the Open Access web page for instructions.
Understandably, a professional society wants to serve its membership and citizens around the globe with high quality information. Societies increasingly are turning to open access for their publications and finding other funding revenues such as article processing charges to pay for this. Allowing you to contribute a version of your article to the ScholarsArchive@OSU open access repository does not have to compete with this goal.
Faculty who do not want a given article to be made open access for any reason can obtain a waiver to the policy, which will be automatically granted. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org to receive a waiver.
The policy creates an open access version of a scholarly article covered by copyright. All of the rights and duties that exist in the case of traditional publication remain in the case of the Open Access version, including the ability to prosecute in cases of piracy or plagiarism. If anything, it will deter piracy by allowing access to a freely available version of an article that might otherwise be distributed unlawfully. Plagiarism is something that cannot be addressed by an open access policy.
Faculty are free to transfer their copyright to whomever they wish, but articles are henceforth subject to a pre-existing, non-exclusive license to OSU. In practice, Faculty may opt out of the Open Access requirement, meaning that the policy requires only that a copy of the pre-publication version of an article be deposited with OSU, though not made available within the repository.
For situations in which a publishing agreement is in conflict with the license granted to OSU under its Open Access policy, authors may submit to the publisher a publishing agreement addendum (provided by OSU Libraries) that reconciles the conflict, choose to publish elsewhere, or obtain a waiver (automatically granted) that will remove the OSU license to that article. Faculty should think carefully before transferring copyright to any publisher, and consider the benefits of a modified publication agreement. Many Faculty routinely modify their agreements to retain certain rights, and many publishers comply. It is important to remember that the OSU license has force even when a later conflicting publishing agreement is signed , because it would have been granted (through this policy) prior to the signing of the publisher contract.
The license to OSU enables the broadest possible accessibility and use of the articles in terms of not limiting access to specific people or limiting specific kinds of uses beyond those that violate the copyright or involve the selling of the article for profit. Users of the articles are still responsible for complying with copyright law regarding use of the articles.
The license also enables OSU to grant rights back to the author. Authors sign away most or all of their rights to publishers when they sign a publication agreement. The clause "authorize others to do the same" gives the university permission to transfer these rights back to the author. The effect is that authors retain (or regain) certain rights to their work, including rights that they might have transferred away in their publishing contracts.
For these reasons, the set of rights transferred to the institution should be as broad as possible, so that the author thereby retains or regains the broadest possible set of rights so that authors can legally distribute their articles from their own web sites (as they often do illicitly now), use them for their classes, develop derivative works, and the like. In this sense, the policy leads to authors retaining rights, not just universities obtaining rights.
(Partly from the Harvard University Good Practices for University Open-Access Policies)
In legal terms co-authors have an "undivided interest" in the entire work; thus, a co-author can deposit a work to ScholarsArchive@OSU even if s/he is not the primary author or is one of many authors. As a practical matter we would expect OSU co-authors to check with and inform their co-authors of the policy and of any open access deposit of their work. It is up to the author to decide whether to opt out of the policy for a given article to accomodate the wishes of a co-author.
It is possible to remove a paper, particularly in cases involving a legal dispute. Contact email@example.com with the URL of your paper to have a paper retracted.
Contact firstname.lastname@example.org to invite faculty to discuss the policy with you individually or with your department or unit.
Excellent educational materials about Open Access are available through the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Consortium (SPARC) website, as well as through other sites active in promoting Open Access, including:
Michael Boock, Associate Professor/Scholarly Communication Librarian